As a rule, the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) accepts a functional equivalent of a Qualified Domestic Relations Orders (QDROs), referred to as a Court Order Acceptable for Processing (COAP), but not a QDRO as you know them in the private sector.
There are a multiple of issues to be considered that can dramatically skew the COAP in favor of one spouse or the other. A slight change in verbiage means tens of thousands of dollars difference in value in favor of one or the other spouse.
For example, it is often observed in settlement agreements, or final judgments, the reference to FERS or CSRS as a “account” which is a dangerous term since the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) interprets “account” as only a refund of employee contributions. This is not the same as dividing the pension (annuity) over the life time of the federal employee.
Since government pension plans are exempt from QDROs, if you observe federal pensions being divided by a “QDRO” or referred to as an “account” it is imperative to seek a second opinion.
When it comes to offsetting marital property values in divorce, the difference between FERS/CSRS and traditional non-governmental plans could mean tens of thousands of dollars. You could also lose valuable benefits when dividing these plans with a court order without the retention of an expert that specializes in these types of orders.
The main difference between the FERS plan and the CSRS plan, is that if you are a participant in the FERS plan, you also contribute to Social Security. Participants in the CSRS do not.
The question then becomes: should both plans be entirely valued for purposes of property offset, since the Social Security benefits of an FERS participant are not a divisible asset?
Determining the value of a FERS or CSRS retirement annuity, is performed much the same way as any traditional defined benefit pension, that is determining the value of a lifetime income stream based on only the amount accrued as of the date of divorce, or separation, though the annual cost-of-living-adjustment is factored in as well.
When dividing the actual monthly benefit, you can use a percentage, a flat dollar amount, or a fraction, which pro-rates the final retirement benefit. Pro-rating the retirement benefit in this way uses the years of marriage relative to the years of service but increases the amount the spouse of the federal employee would receive. Not all states allow for the use of “prorata” but many states do based on their domestic relations laws.
Other issues to consider in both the valuation of CSRS/FERS or court order division are:
Survivor /benefits, if retired, as Survivor benefits have value
Disability retirement vs. benefits paid from a disability insurance policy
Years to Retirement requiring an analysis of whether an offset is advantageous for a client or court order division of the annuity by COAP
Determining the marital value of a TSP requires separate calculations, this once, the TSP Board will not compute marital components, i.e. contributions and earnings between two points in time. There does not exist a program that can calculate various levels of contributions and varying amounts of earnings over a period of time, whether the federal employee is invested in one fund or several funds available under the TSP.
Loans are another issue to consider since only the federal employee can pay a loan back. The question is Should the former spouse’s share be reduced by a portion of the loan amount?
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